In the 21st Century there is a new age of information and information systems – all of which can ultimately supply recipes for artificial intelligence. In the 1990’s we are told, the US Department of Defense outlayed billions of tax dollars in an alleged attempt to find a solution to Turing’s Halting problem – they … Continue reading →
Atomic Vortex Theory - Kelvin
You can see in the quotes below from Wiki how the truth of chaos and fluid dynamics in particle vortices was evident in 1877 but was then buried repeatedly in the next 100 years – for the wiki article to state that Kelvins Atomic Vortex Theory was ‘wrong-headed’ and replaced by Quantum physics with its innate particle wave duality paradox which no-one can solve without recourse to the aether which was made taboo or Kelvins chaos vortices. How for 100 years we are stuck with an unworkable particle physics model called QED with a Central Paradox instead of using a more realistic and natural general systems theory approach to the explanation of matter in terms of natural chaos forms.
Kelvin in 1902 may not have had the computers to work on chaos theory but in 1992 at the Santa Fe Institute supercomputing and complexity modelling although seeming to toe the prescribed line re NOT articulating the newly discovered chaos law of emergence and its contradiction of the 2nd law of thermodynamics, predicting rewarming after the Big bang and not heat death.
At this time Nikola Tesla was attempting to print his Theory of Environmental Energy which indicated that the aether would outpour free energy if disturbed by rotating magnets/magnetic field, empirical proof of that these days coming from the spinning NASA satellites that get more energy than they appear to have been entitled to by the known (or allowed) issues in physics when they engage a gravitational slingshot around a planet and its magnetosphere.
‘Real Scientists’ today are attempting to sell us the Higgs Boson or ‘God Particle’ as the final ultimate smallest building block – homogenous, identical in every detail, reproducible in every detail and as standard as a billiard ball. Real Chaos Theory though would suggest that everything every one item in the Universe was as unique as a fingerprint, with no two identical items, all having variations to some degree, and that also the aether and its array of particles is infinitely divisible with no upper or lower limit on scale or function in any given context.
Here are the wiki notes on Vortex Dynamics which give an indication of the reasonable steps in natural modelling that chaos and fluid dynamics were producing before Science with a big ‘S’ in 1938 in Copenhagen decided that a physics paradigm with an inexplicable paradox at its heart was better than anything that natural events could teach us.
Vortex dynamics is a vibrant subfield of fluid dynamics, commanding attention at major scientific conferences and precipitating workshops and symposia that focus fully on the subject.
A curious diversion in the history of vortex dynamics was the vortex atom theory of William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin. His basic idea was that atoms were to be represented as vortex motions in the ether. This theory predated the quantum theory by several decades and because of the scientific standing of its originator received considerable attention. Many profound insights into vortex dynamics were generated during the pursuit of this theory. Other interesting corollaries were the first counting of simple knots by P. G. Tait, today considered a pioneering effort in graph theory, topology and knot theory. Ultimately, Kelvin's vortex atom was seen to be wrong-headed but the many results in vortex dynamics that it precipitated have stood the test of time. Kelvin himself originated the notion of circulation and proved that in an inviscid fluid circulation around a material contour would be conserved. This result — singled out by Einstein as one of the most significant results of Kelvin's work — provided an early link between fluid dynamics and topology.
The history of vortex dynamics seems particularly rich in discoveries and re-discoveries of important results, because results obtained were entirely forgotten after their discovery and then were re-discovered decades later. Thus, the integrability of the problem of three point vortices on the plane was solved in the 1877 thesis of a young Swiss applied mathematician named Walter Gröbli. In spite of having been written in Göttingen in the general circle of scientists surrounding Helmholtz and Kirchhoff, and in spite of having been mentioned in Kirchhoff's well known lectures on theoretical physics and in other major texts such as Lamb's Hydrodynamics, this solution was largely forgotten. A 1949 paper by the noted applied mathematician J. L. Synge created a brief revival, but Synge's paper was in turn forgotten. A quarter century later a 1975 paper by E. A. Novikov and a 1979 paper by H. Aref on chaotic advection finally brought this important earlier work to light. The subsequent elucidation of chaos in the four-vortex problem, and in the advection of a passive particle by three vortices, made Gröbli's work part of "modern science".
Another example of this kind is the so-called "localized induction approximation" (LIA) for three-dimensional vortex filament motion, which gained favor in the mid-1960s through the work of Arms, Hama, Betchov and others, but turns out to date from the early years of the 20th century in the work of Da Rios, a gifted student of the noted Italian mathematician T. Levi-Civita. Da Rios published his results in several forms but they were never assimilated into the fluid mechanics literature of his time. In 1972 H. Hasimoto used Da Rios' "intrinsic equations" (later re-discovered independently by R. Betchov) to show how the motion of a vortex filament under LIA could be related to the non-linear Schrödinger equation. This immediately made the problem part of "modern science" since it was then realized that vortex filaments can support solitary twist waves of large amplitude.
For thousands of years, knots have been used for basic purposes such as recording information, fastening and tying objects together. Over time people realized that different knots were better at different tasks, such as climbing or sailing. Knots were also regarded as having spiritual and religious symbolism in addition to their aesthetic qualities. The endless knot appears in Tibetan Buddhism, while the Borromean rings have made repeated appearances in different cultures, often symbolizing unity. The Celtic monks who created the Book of Kells lavished entire pages with intricate Celtic knotwork. Knots were studied from a mathematical viewpoint by Carl Friedrich Gauss, who in 1833 developed the Gauss linking integral for computing the linking number of two knots. His student Johann Benedict Listing, after whom Listing's knot is named, furthered their study.
Trivial knots The early, significant stimulus in knot theory would arrive later with Sir William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) and his theory of vortex atoms. (Sossinsky 2002, p. 1–3) In 1867 after observing Scottish physicist Peter Tait's experiments involving smoke rings, Thomson came to the idea that atoms were knots of swirling vortices in the æther. Chemical elements would thus correspond to knots and links. Tait's experiments were inspired by a paper of Helmholtz's on vortex-rings in incompressible fluids. Thomson and Tait believed that an understanding and classification of all possible knots would explain why atoms absorb and emit light at only the discrete wavelengths that they do. For example, Thomson thought that sodium could be the Hopf link due to its two lines of spectra. (Sossinsky 2002, p. 3–10) Tait subsequently began listing unique knots in the belief that he was creating a table of elements. He formulated what are now known as the Tait conjectures on alternating knots. (The conjectures were proved in the 1990s.) Tait's knot tables were subsequently improved upon by C. N. Little and Thomas Kirkman. (Sossinsky 2002, p. 6) James Clerk Maxwell, a colleague and friend of Thomson's and Tait's, also developed a strong interest in knots. Maxwell studied Listing's work on knots. He re-interpreted Gauss' linking integral in terms of electromagnetic theory. In his formulation, the integral represented the work done by a charged particle moving along one component of the link under the influence of the magnetic field generated by an electric current along the other component. Maxwell also continued the study of smoke rings by considering three interacting rings.